Intrinsic and extrinsic dental erosion: literature review
Palavras-chave:dental erosion; gastric acid; feeding behavior.
Dental erosion is the irreversible loss of tooth structure by a chemical process, without bacterial involvement. Its etiology is multifactorial, characterized by factors of chemical, biological and behavioral origin, being divided into intrinsic or extrinsic origin. Objective: To present the main factors that may trigger erosion lesions, relating them to the concept, diagnosis, clinical features, etiological factors, prevention and treatment. Material and methods: Scientific articles found in PubMed (English), SciELO (Portuguese) and Google Acadêmico (Portuguese) between the years 2010 and 2022. Results: Intrinsic factors are those associated with the presence of endogenous acids such as gastric acid, somatic disorders, periods of pregnancy, alcoholism and gastrointestinal problems. Extrinsic factors are related to eating habits, frequent intake of acidic beverages and foods, and oral administration of medications. The most common clinical characteristic is loss of enamel luster, a smooth, U-shaped surface, which with persistent exposure to acid forms concavities and excavations on the occlusal and incisal surfaces. It affects the palatal surface of the upper anterior teeth and the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth. The consequences of dental erosion include dental hypersensitivity and marginal degradation of existing restorations. Conclusion: Dental erosion can cause serious complications, requiring patient compliance. The professional’s knowledge of the etiological factors, associated with a good anamnesis and a detailed clinical examination, decides the best treatment, whether preventive or restorative for more severe cases, thus improving the patient’s quality of life.